Translation of Sallust's Catilinarian War 1

[ Sallust, Catilinae Coniuratio: XI ]

Sed primo magis ambitio quam avaritia animos hominum exercebat, quod tamen vitium propius virtutem erat. Nam gloriam, honorem, imperium bonus et ignavus aeque sibi exoptant; sed ille vera via nititur, huic quia bonae artes desunt, dolis atque fallaciis contendit. Avaritia pecuniae studium habet, quam nemo sapiens concupivit: ea quasi venenis malis imbuta corpus animumque virilem effeminat, semper infinita, insatiabilis est, neque copia neque inopia minuitur.

But at first ambitio more than greed motivated the minds of men, a vice which was nevertheless closer to virtue. For both good and lazy men equally hope for themselves renown, honour and power. But the first man pursues the righteous path, for the other, because the finer skills are lacking, he proceeds using tricks and lies. Greed possesses a desire for money, which no wise man longs for. Greed, embued as if with evil poisons, weakens the body and the virile mind, always unlimited and insatiable, it is diminished neither by abundance nor by scarcity.

Sed postquam L. Sulla armis recepta re publica bonis initiis malos eventus habuit, rapere omnes, omnes trahere, domum alius, alius agros cupere, neque modum neque modestiam victores habere, foeda crudeliaque in civis facinora facere. Huc accedebat, quod L. Sulla exercitum, quem in Asia ductaverat, quo sibi fidum faceret, contra morem maiorum luxuriose nimisque liberaliter habuerat.

But afterwards, when the Republic had been taken back under arms, L. Sulla, although with good beginnings, brought about bad results: everyone plundered, everyone pillaged, one man sought a home, another sought lands, the victors observed (habere) no restraint nor self-control, inflicting foul and cruel crimes upon the citizens. To this it was added that Sulla against all customary practices treated his army, which he had led into Asia, too generously and too freely, in order to make it loyal to him.

quo: introducing a purpose clause
Huc accedebat: in addition
quod: a noun clause acting as the subject of accedebat
habere + adv == to administer, to treat. Not an infrequent use of this sense.

Loca amoena, voluptaria facile in otio ferocis militum animos molliverant. Ibi primum insuevit exercitus populi Romani amare, potare, signa, tabulas pictas, vasa caelata mirari, ea privatim et publice rapere, delubra spoliare, sacra profanaque omnia polluere. Igitur ii milites, postquam victoriam adepti sunt, nihil reliqui victis fecere. Quippe secundae res sapientium animos fatigant: ne illi corruptis moribus victoriae temperarent.

The pleasant and enjoyable locales [of Asia] softened the ferocious spirits of the soldiery at rest. There, the army of the Roman people first became accustomed to delight and to intoxication, to marvel at figurines, decorative paintings, engraved vases, to steal both public and private possessions, to despoil sanctuaries and to pollute all things sacred and profane. Therefore, these soldiers, after that achieved victory, left nothing behind for those that had been conquered. Favourable results [even] weary the minds of wise: still less do men show restraint in victory when their morals have been corrupted.

ne = nedum: still less + subjunctive
tempero: (+dat) to observe proper measure, be moderate, restrain oneself, forbear, abstain, be temperate, act temperately

[ Sallust, Catilinae Coniuratio: XII ]

Postquam divitiae honori esse coepere et eas gloria, imperium, potentia sequebatur, hebescere virtus, paupertas probro haberi, innocentia pro malevolentia duci coepit.

When wealth began to be the basis of honour, and renown, authority and power followed it, virtue began to weaken, poverty began to be reckoned as a disgrace, innocence began to be considered as if malevolent.

Igitur ex divitiis iuventutem luxuria atque avaritia cum superbia invasere: rapere, consumere, sua parvi pendere, aliena cupere, pudorem, pudicitiam, divina atque humana promiscua, nihil pensi neque moderati habere.

Therefore because of these riches, excess and greed along with arrogance rushed upon this new generation: they began to steal, to squander, to consider their own possessions to be of little worth, to desire those belonging to others, and they mixed up modesty and shame, the human with the divine, holding nothing to be of worth nor of moderation.

Operae pretium est, cum domos atque villas cognoveris in urbium modum exaedificatas, visere templa deorum, quae nostri maiores, religiosissumi mortales, fecere. Verum illi delubra deorum pietate, domos suas gloria decorabant neque victis quicquam praeter iniuriae licentiam eripiebant. At hi contra, ignavissumi homines, per summum scelus omnia ea sociis adimere, quae fortissumi viri victores reliquerant: proinde quasi iniuriam facere id demum esset imperio uti.

Operae pretium est: lit: it is the worth of the extertion/effort: i.e. it is worthwhile.

It is worthwhile, whenever you behold the homes and estates built up in the manner of towns, to look at the temples of the gods, which our ancestors, those most religious of men, built. Those men adorned these shrines in their piety to the gods and their own homes with glory. And nor did they remove anything from those who had been conquered except their freedom [to do] harm. But in contrast these man [now], the worst kind of men, through a most heinous act take everything from our allies, which our bravest men as victors had left behind. Accordingly, it were as if to inflict harm is the only use of power.

quasi iniuriam facere id demum esset imperio uti: A+G New Latin Grammar, section 524 "Conditional Clauses of Comparison": quasi vero non specie visa iudicentur: as if in truth visible things were not judged by their appearance.

[ Sallust, Catilinae Coniuratio: XIII ]

Nam quid ea memorem, quae nisi iis, qui videre, nemini credibilia sunt: a privatis compluribus subvorsos montis, maria constrata esse? Quibus mihi videntur ludibrio fuisse divitiae: quippe, quas honeste habere licebat, abuti per turpitudinem properabant. Sed lubido stupri, ganeae ceterique cultus non minor incesserat: viri muliebria pati, mulieres pudicitiam in propatulo habere; vescendi causa terra marique omnia exquirere; dormire prius, quam somni cupido esset; non famem aut sitim, neque frigus neque lassitudinem opperiri, sed omnia luxu antecapere. Haec iuventutem, ubi familiares opes defecerant, ad facinora incendebant: animus imbutus malis artibus haud facile lubidinibus carebat; eo profusius omnibus modis quaestui atque sumptui deditus erat.

Why am I recalling these events, which are not believable for anyone except those who witnessed them: when mountains were levelled and seas built upon by many private individuals. Wealth for these men seems to be a play thing: indeed, riches which it was permitted to use honorably, they hurried to abuse in their depravity. But the lust for debauchery, houses of ill repute and other refinements did not lessen: men acted like woman, women offered their modesty in the open; for the sake of consumption they searched for everything on land and sea; they slept before they were tired; they did not wait for hunger nor food, nor cold nor weariness, instead they pre-empted everything for luxury. And when family wealth was exhausted, this inflamed the youth to commit crimes: their spirit imbued with the evil arts did not easily lack the objects of their desire; for this reason their spirit was more profusely devoted to acquisition and expense.

[ Sallust, Catilinae Coniuratio: XIV ]

In tanta tamque corrupta civitate Catilina, id quod factu facillumum erat, omnium flagitiorum atque facinorum circum se tamquam stipatorum catervas habebat. Nam quicumque inpudicus, adulter, ganeo manu, ventre, pene bona patria laceraverat quique alienum aes grande conflaverat, quo flagitium aut facinus redimeret, praeterea omnes undique parricidae, sacrilegi, convicti iudiciis aut pro factis iudicium timentes, ad hoc, quos manus atque lingua periurio aut sanguine civili alebat, postremo omnes, quos flagitium, egestas, conscius animus exagitabat, ii Catilinae proxumi familiaresque erant.

In such a completely corrupted State, Cataline, because this was easy to do, placed around himself a group of disgraceful and criminal activities as if a group of attendants. For whosoever was an unchaste adulterer or glutton had plundered his patrinomy through gambling or desire or wantoness and who had incurred a great debt in order that he might pay for his shameful and criminal activity, furthermore, all the murderers from every direction, the sacriligious, those convicted in trials or those fearing legal judgement for their actions, in addition to this, for those whom force and speech had supported in perjury or civilian blood-letting, finally, those whom disgrace, need or complicity spurred on, all these men were the associates and friends of Cataline.

ganeo,onis,m: glutton
lacero, avi, atum, 1: a plunder, wrangle, tear, mangle
manus, us: In throwing dice, a stake: quas manus remisi, to throw up the stakes
penis,is,m: tail, penis, lust, wantoness
alienum aes: debt

quod si quis etiam a culpa vacuus in amicitiam eius inciderat, cottidiano usu atque illecebris facile par similisque ceteris efficiebatur.

But even if anyone devoid of culpability happened to fall into friendship with Cataline, he was easily influenced into becoming similar to the rest through daily interaction and enticements.

usus,us,m: Intercourse, familiarity, association, intimacy, society

sed maxime adulescentium familiaritates appetebat: eorum animi molles et aetate fluxi dolis haud difficulter capiebantur.

But most of all he sought the friendship of the youth: their minds still malleable and impressionable because of their age were not difficult at all to capture through tricks.

nam ut quoiusque studium ex aetate flagrabat, aliis scorta praebere, aliis canes atque equos mercari; postremo neque sumptui neque modestiae suae parcere, dum illos obnoxios fidosque sibi faceret.

For as the zeal of each one was inflamed due to their age, to some he offered prostitutes, to others he purchased dogs and horses; finally, he spurned neither consumption nor self control, until he made them liable and faithful to himself.

Scio fuisse nonnullos, qui ita existumarent: iuventutem, quae domum Catilinae frequentabat, parum honeste pudicitiam habuisse; sed ex aliis rebus magis, quam quod cuiquam id compertum foret, haec fama valebat.

I know that there are some who judge it this way: the youth who frenquented Cataline's home held their modesty with too little honor; But this story took hold for other reasons rather than it had been ascertained by anyone.

cuiquam: dative of agent with pluperfect passive verb of perception

[ Sallust, Catilinae Coniuratio: XV ]

Iam primum adulescens Catilina multa nefanda stupra fecerat, cum virgine nobili, cum sacerdote Vestae, alia huiusce modi contra ius fasque. Postremo captus amore Aureliae Orestillae, cuius praeter formam nihil umquam bonus laudavit, quod ea nubere illi dubitabat timens privignum adulta aetate, pro certo creditur necato filio vacuam domum scelestis nuptiis fecisse. Quae quidem res mihi in primis videtur causa fuisse facinus maturandi. Namque animus inpurus, dis hominibusque infestus neque vigiliis neque quietibus sedari poterat: ita conscientia mentem excitam vastabat. Igitur colo[r/s] ei exsanguis, foedi oculi, citus modo, modo tardus incessus: prorsus in facie vultuque vecordia inerat.

First of all, the youthful Cataline committed many unspeakable violations, with a prominent young woman, with the priestess of the Vesta, and other acts like this contrary to legal and divine proscription. Finally, he was captured by the love for Aurelia Orestilla, whom no good man ever praised except for her beauty and, because she hestitated to marry him out of fear for her new adult stepson, he was reliably accredited to have emptied his home for these accursed nuptials by murdering his own son. Indeed I believe it was primarily this affair that was the reason he moved forward with the conspiracy. For his mind impure, hostile to gods and men, was not able to be soothed in wakefulness nor in rest, such was the guilt that ravaged his agitated mental state. Therefore his palour became pale, his eyes foul, his walking pace at one moment fast then slow: in short madness had taken over his face and his expression.

Human madness is oftentimes a cunning and most feline thing. When you think it fled, it may have but become transfigured into some still subtler form. Ahab's full lunacy subsided not, but deepeningly contracted; like the unabated Hudson, when that noble Northman flows narrowly, but unfathomably through the Highland gorge. But, as in his narrow-flowing monomania, not one jot of Ahab's broad madness had been left behind; so in that broad madness, not one jot of his great natural intellect had perished. That before living agent, now became the living instrument. If such a furious trope may stand, his special lunacy stormed his general sanity, and carried it, and turned all its concentred cannon upon its own mad mark; so that far from having lost his strength, Ahab, to that one end, did now possess a thousand fold more potency than ever he had sanely brought to bear upon any one reasonable object. (Melville, Moby Dick)