The root mean squared error in the orientation
when combining GPs with deep belief nets
GP on
the
pixels
GP on
top-level
features
GP on top-level
features with
fine-tuning
100 labels
500 labels
1000 labels
22.2 17.9 15.2
17.2 12.7 7.2
16.3 11.2 6.4
Conclusion: The deep features are much better
than the pixels. Fine-tuning helps a lot.