













• 
We can always
make an equivalent model by



applying a
rotation to the factors and then



applying the
inverse rotation to the factor loading


matrix.




– 
The
data does not prefer any particular



orientation
of the factors.



• 
This is a
problem if we want to discover the true



causal factors.




– 
Psychologists
wanted to use scores on



intelligence
tests to find the independent



factors
of intelligence.

