Black, M.J., Fleet, D.J., and Yacoob, Y.
Robustly estimating changes in image appearance.
Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 78(1):8-31, 2000

We propose a generalized model of image ``appearance change'' in which brightness variation over time is represented as a probabilistic mixture of different causes. We define four generative models of appearance change due to: 1) object or camera motion; 2) illumination phenomena; 3) specular reflections; and 4) ``iconic changes'' which are specific to the objects being viewed. These iconic changes include complex occlusion events and changes in the material properties of the objects. We develop a robust statistical framework for recovering these appearance changes in image sequences. This approach generalizes previous work on optical flow to provide a richer description of image events and more reliable estimates of image motion in the presense of shadows and specular reflections.
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